To be a department of high repute with regard to research, application and transmission of knowledge in social sciences to promote social development.
|Degree Code:||C50||Degree Name:||MASTER OF ARTS IN SOCIOLOGY|
|Degree Description:||Click to View|
|Degree description||View Details|
The first year consists of course work. The second year second semester is also course work. After successfully completing course (in three (3) semester with a maximum course loading of four (4) units per semester) a student then proceeds to the fourth semester which consists of proposal writing, field research, M.A project paper and oral examination. Out of the three core/compulsory units, two (CSO 501 and CSO 513) must be completed in the first semester and the third (CSO 516) in the second semester.
|General Regulations||View Details|
SOC. 1 The common University of Nairobi and Faculty of Arts Regulations pertaining to the M.A. degree shall apply, except as varied in these supplementary regulations.
SOC. 2 Each M.A. candidate shall be required to successfully take at least three (3) core, give(5) specialized and four (4) elective course units, prior to embarking on the M.A. project paper.
SOC 3 The core courses which each M.A. candidate shall be required to take are: CSO 501, Contemporary Sociological Theory, CS 513: Advanced Quantitative Research Methods) and CSO 516: Advanced Social Statistics I. The remaining specialized and elective course units shall be selected according to specifications in the programmes or clusters in which the students shall have registered.
SOC 4 Courses shall be grouped into clusters reflecting distinct areas of specialization and each student shall be registered in at least one cluster, which shall constitute his/her major area of specialization. To specialize in a cluster, an M.A. student shall be required to have successfully taken at least five (5) specialized courses in that cluster, besides the three compulsory courses. The components of any cluster may change from time to time as new course units and clusters emerge, and upon approval by Senate. Fifteen clusters of courses re for the time-being available to M.A> students and have the following titles: General Sociology, Sociological Theory, Social Research Methods and Statistics, Sociology of Development, Rural Sociology and Community Development, Criminology and Social Order, Industrial Sociology, Social Psychology, Entrepreneurship Development, Labour Management Relations, Societal Marketing and Opinion Surveys, Disaster Studies, Adolescent Behaviour, Counseing, and Medical Sociology. Except for the first three, all clusters are administered by specific programmes within the Department of Sociology. Though courses are available as part of the respective cluster, no cluster shall be offered to any cohort of applicants unless a set minimum and cost effective number actually register for the course, as determined from time to time by the Department of Sociology.
SOC 5. To claim a minor area of specialization in another cluster, a student must register for and pass at least three specialized course units in that cluster, provided that, where the same course units appear in more than one cluster, only one unit used to claim a major or minor area of specialization in one cluster shall be counted for the purposes of meeting the unit requirements for another area of specialization. The Department of Sociology may in particular semesters vary these requirements, by written notification and justification to the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and the Director of the Board of Postgraduate Studies.
SOC 6. The Department of Sociology shall offer courses leading to the following M.A. degrees: M.A. (Sociology), M.A. Sociological Theory), M.A (Social Research Methods and Statistics), M.A. (Sociology of Development), M.A. (Rural Sociology and Community), M.A. (Criminology and Social Order), M.A. (Industrial Sociology), M.A. (Social Psychology), M.A. Entrepreneurship Development), M.A. (Labour-Management Relations), M.A Societal Marketing and Opinion Surveys), M.A. Disaster Studies), M.A. Adolescent Behaviour), M.A. (Counselling), and M.A. Medical Sociology)
|Level : Non Specified|
|Semester: Non Specified|
|Course Code||Course Name||Course Hours|
|CSO 501||Contemporary Sociological Theory||View Description|
Contemporary Sociological Theory Description
This course is designed to deepen graduate Master of Arts students understanding of basic Sociological and Contemporary theories. This course aims to increase their appreciation of the relevance of theory to their specific areas of interest. It emphasizes micro and macro dimensions of social reality. Students will be expected to demonstrate familiarity with the writings of particular authors and selected themes.
|CSO 504||The Disciplinary Society||View Description|
The Disciplinary Society Description
Critical analysis of the techniques used by modern society to assert discipline in social processes in the name of rationality, efficiency, sufficiency, and progress. The Marcusean double-question guiding the analysis is: how can the modern, rational state be disciplined away from its own tendency toward irrational criminalization of dissent, and to what extent is it possible for dissent to achieve its goals within the bounds of jointly constructed rules of the game? Focus primarily on the works of Marx, Weber, Taylor, Parsons, Merton, Braverman, Marcuse, Foucault, and O’Neil; incorporates an intensive analysis of disciplinary ideology and practice in at least six spheres of social life selected from this list: the prison, the factor or power-supply plant, governmental or private sector bureaucracy, the hospital, the police force, the army, the union (trade union, political party, liberation movement, or fundamentalist group), the family, the school, the professions, and the transportation industry. Key concepts include: governmentality, law and order, regulatory authority, surveillance, social control, civility, docile bodies, discipline and punishment, rationality and efficiency, self-sufficiency, democratic rule and human rights, legitimacy, paternalism, gender equity, trust, the medicalization/clinacalization of power of socio-political space, the criminalization of protest, and work commitment. The main themes covered include: the power-knowledge dialectic, or the roles played by the applied human sciences or professions (disciplines) in constructing and implementing regimes of rational discipline in society; standardization and quality control; the human factor; the Protestant Ethic; and the work ethics. Theories covered include: Marx’s labour theory of value and theory of state; Weber’s theory of bureaucracy; Durkheim’s division of labour; Braverman’s labour process theory; Taylor’s scientific management; Foucault’s discourses on the clinic, the prison, madness, and the modalities of order; Merton’s theory of social structure; and Parson’s social system and functional theories.
|CSO 506||Socialization Theories||View Description|
Socialization Theories Description
Extended anaylysis of leading sociological perspectives and theories of socialization, by authors such as: Marx, Dhurkeim, Mead, Merton, Parsons, and Blumer. Agencies of socialization: household, extended family and neighbours, friends and peers, school/college, “church”, mass media, and workplace (employer and workmates). Socialization and the life-cycle. The special problems of adolescent socialization: responses to pressures exerted by family, peers, the disciplinary society, and significant others: gender socialization; socialization into adult roles; and the impact of mass media programmes and advertising. Socialization and gender. Socialization and the special problems of the elderly; socialization into post-retirement, and through mass media campaigns favouring particular geriatric lifestyles. Socialization and reflexivity: the process of identity construction, de-construction, and reconstruction.
|CSO 507||Conflict Theory||View Description|
Conflict Theory Description
The philosophical and historical underpinnings of conflict theory, tracing back to the dialectical perspective evident in Plato’s Republic. A critical review, via detailed textual analysis, of the essential elements of conflict theory as propounded or understood by a selection of thinkers, such as: Marx, Simmel, Weber, Coser, Dahrendorf, and Collins. A critical evaluation of Bottomore’s thesis that Marx’s theory represents a juxtaposition of “conflict” and ‘equilibrium” models of society; and an exploration of the “layers” within which each model obtains. An exposition of the fundamental laws of dialects, and their implications for the process of interaction, conflict and change in social life; and an inquiry into the fusion of dialects and materialism specifically as the energizing basis for intra-epoch social formations and inter-epoch transitions [dialectics, through contradiction/negation, providing the motion; and the material bases providing both the generic terrain and the grounding for contending social forces and ideas]. ‘Unsettled’ aspects of derivative theories of alienation, ideology, and revolution. The space-time-size within which social conflicts occur, the issues that are usually involved, and how these are typically ‘resolve’. And a concluding argument on the functions and dysfunctions of conflict in society.
|CSO 508||Theories Of Modernity And Post-modernity||View Description|
Theories Of Modernity And Post-modernity Description
Key concepts include: modernity and postmodernity, afromodernity, reflexivity, abstract systems, expertise, disembedding, trust, space-time distanciation, world-system, globalization, imperialism, deskilling and reskilling, ontological security, westernization, tradition. Main themes: risk and danger in the modern world, abstract (and/or expert) systems, the reflexivity of modern social life, the transformation of intimacy, the centrality of trust in social life, Africa’s triple heritage, the institutional dimension. Analysis of the three phenomenological perspectives on modernity articulated respectively by Marx, Weber and Giddens. A critical exposition of the generic meanings of the terms modernity and the “West”, and of how, from Weber to Giddens, the latter came to be used to brand modernity a “Western project”. Evidence adduced to show that much of the “evidence” used to construct and maintain the West’s image as the world’s “cradle” of science and technology actually originated elsewhere.
|CSO 511||Appraisal, Monitoring And Evaluation Techniques||View Description|
Appraisal, Monitoring And Evaluation Techniques Description
Course covers techniques relevant to different sectors of socio-economic activity and to different programme-and project-goals, including: entrepreneurship development (income generation, training, skill-improvement, capacity utilization, business expansion and the enabling environment); emergency management (preparedness, relief and recovery); counseling and guidance (adolescence, entrepreneurs, victims of various disasters and emergencies, drug users and abusers, prison graduates); community, regional or sectoral development and emergencies, drug innovations; preventive measures; poverty eradication; employment creation; gender equity; ecological balance; and governance. The techniques actually covered in any year depends on the students’ background and interests, and include: tracer studies, needs assessment, and indicators relevant to the appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of selected sectors or types of projects or programmes. Mainstream stems and procedures in the appraisal, monitoring or evaluation processes are identified, explicated and critically evaluated using actual case studies as well as relevant manuals and theoretical texts, with a view to designing improvements meaningful to the real-life circumstances under which students are likely to work after training.
|CSO 512||Attitude Measurement And Behaviour Change||View Description|
Attitude Measurement And Behaviour Change Description
Intensive study of the attitude-behaviour association, with particular attention to the concept of attitude and the validity of behavioural criteria. Focus on recent trends in theories of attitude change, and related methods, and their implications for behaviour prediction and change, particularly in African settings. Considerable attention paid to attitude determinants, and to attitude scaling techniques. The measurements and methods considered include: the cognitive and effective components, physiological measures, standardized verbal methods, standardized verbal specific methods, and measures of the behavioural component. Empirical examples cited during the course drawn from various spheres of social life or stages in the life cycle, for example: adolescence, ethnicity, parenthood, family life, sexuality and family planning, adoption of innovations, health-seeking behaviour, entrepreneurship, public opinion, political (including voting) behaviour, consumer behaviour, deviant behaviour, and culture change. Research designs appropriate to selected empirical situations reflected from the above list are jointly developed in a seminar context.
|CSO 513||Advanced Quantitative Research Methods||View Description|
Advanced Quantitative Research Methods Description
An advanced laboratory course in survey research methods. Intensive training in survey research design and implementation, data analysis and scientific report-writing, with particular reference to thesis work and funded research. Considerable stress on the proper articulation of the research problem (the problem statement); the distinction between research objectives and the problem statement, and the link between the problem study justification. A critical analysis of past dissertations and thesis in terms of the key components of the research proposal (and the final thesis/scientific report), and the basic principles linking each component to the next: problem statement, literature review (and theoretical framework), hypotheses, variable specification and operation definitions, survey methods (including a detailed sampling procedure, and the determination o a sample size appropriate to the articulated problem), hypothesis-testing and other data analysis techniques, the relevant field-research instruments (questionnaires, interview schedules). The course-essentially reflects these components. Students jointly design and execute all the stages of a small sample survey under strict staff supervision, and write a preliminary analytical report. Survey topics vary from year to year.
|CSO 514||Advanced Qualitative Research Methods||View Description|
Advanced Qualitative Research Methods Description
A graduate-level coverage of a spectrum of themes, including the status and uses of unquantified evidence. The differences between social and sociological problems, the truth-value of common sense, empiricist or sociological versions of problems and topics. The relevance (and/or irrelevance) of rationality in sociological discourse and research practices. Legitimization of claims to understanding others and the construction of sociological explanations. Globalization and comparative research. The linkages between social theory, literature review and social research. Fieldwork methods: rules, traditions, trends, debates. Redefining the topic during data collection and analysis. Cognitive anthropology, interactionist sociology and ethnomethodological ethnography as versions of observation and description. Taping and analyzing naturally-occurring data. Photography and life history methods. Use of computers and video recorders in qualitative research. The conflation of reality and virtual reality. The availability of different kinds of materials (from casual conversations to radio call-ins to institutional settings). Basic notation for transcription. Sequential analysis and membership categorization devices. Conversational structures. Discourse analysis. The validation of knowledge—etic and emic approaches. Issues of reliability and validity in qualitative research, especially the refutability principle; the pitfalls of anecdotalism (Foucault, Borges, others), the special logic of case-study, apprehending the unsaid as evidentiary material, and the problems of admissibility/plausibility and multiple determination or concomitance in law and scholarship (science, literature, history). The role of qualitative research in the establishment of facts, texts, genealogies, and witness-credibility; and in policy formulation.
|CSO 515||Current Research Methods For Community Development||View Description|
Current Research Methods For Community Development Description
Focus on beneficiary-oriented research methods currently being used by development agencies and donors. Inquiry into the relevance of the methods to the quantitative and qualitative social science frameworks. These methods, currently used in baseline studies including needs assessments, and in monitoring and impact assessments, include: Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Learning Approach (PLA), Farming Systems Research (FSR), Sondeo and SARAR (Self-Esteem, Associative Strength, Resourcefulness, Action Planning and Responsibility for follow-up). Specific methods used by these broad methods include: community mapping, vern diagrams, wealth ranking, stakeholder and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis, preference and matrix ranking, focused interviews, focus group discussions, case studies and direct observations. Workshops are also used to help in developing the ‘Problem Tree” or in the sharing of ideas among stakeholders of a development or welfare project.
|CSO 516||Advanced Social Statistics||View Description|
Advanced Social Statistics Description
The course is designed to advanced students’ knowledge of quantitative approaches to the social sciences. Developing further the statistics taught in the separate undergraduate courses, it purposely concentrates on the practical use of statistics in the analysis of sociological data, and on such related questions as relevance to theory, and multiple causation. It deals in depth with descriptive statistics, probability statistics inference and significance testing using parametric and nonparametric tests, and the various measures of association. The main concern is to make research more dependable as regards issues of empirical evidence, including validity and reliability. Stress is thus laid on the role of the field researcher as a dependable generator of value-added data useful to theory building and/or policy formulation.
|CSO 524||Social Change In East Africa||View Description|
Social Change In East Africa Description
The course undertakes (a) a detailed review and assessment of sociological theories of social change and related processes, including socialization; (b) an in-depth analysis of major structural changes taking place in East African societies in the light of the theories discussed in (a) and of changes taking place elsewhere in Africa and the rest of the world. Students are exposed to a vigorous approach to sociological analysis and thus gain a deeper insight into the nature and dynamics of social change.
|CSO 525||Comparative Social Change||View Description|
Comparative Social Change Description
Comparative analysis of social change in selected developing and developed countries in the twentieth century, using relevant theories and models, such as: modernity, the communication of innovations, functionalism, social conflict, underdevelopment, agency-structure integration theories, and micro-macro integration theories. Topics include changes in: modes of production, material culture, norms and values, the built environment, family relations and structure, leadership and the power structure, household incomes and assets, health-seeking behaviour, social mobility and intergenerational relations, occupational and social structure (structuration), geographical mobility (including urbanization), transportation, language and the arts. Critical assessment of the main indicators of social change.
|CSO 528||Comparative International Development||View Description|
Comparative International Development Description
Study in depth of the leading (‘classical’ and emerging), and often overlapping, theories and models of socio-economic growth and development (and underdevelopment) as they apply to selected developing and developed countries, such as: World System, Dependency, Globalization, Marxism, Articulation of Modes of Production, Disarticulation, De-industrialization, Convergence, Limits to Growth, Spaceship Earth, Structural Adjustment, and Postmodernity. Detailed exploration of the social, cultural and institutional factors which explain or constrain socio-economic development in identified countries, from both the statist and state-in-society perspectives. In the process, a sociological critique of social and economic indicators of growth and development, based on prevailing theoretical arguments and current empirical evidence. Also an assessment of the policy implications of selected development models broadly in terms of equity and sustainability, and more particularly in terms of employment creation and poverty eradication, in specified countries. In conclusion, the course attempts to identify (1) factors that hinder development in specified Third World countries and (2) key ingredients and actors necessary for development to occur in the Third World.
|CSO 529||Problems Of Urbanization In Developing Societies||View Description|
Problems Of Urbanization In Developing Societies Description
The course begins by exploring the theoretical background to the problems of urbanization in developing societies (of Africa). The so called ‘dragnet approach’ is adopted in this course, which aims at establishing relationships between the problems to be investigated and other variables associated with urban growth. The main topics or discussions are (a) theories of contemporary urban growth in developing countries (b) the relationship between urbanization and industrialization in developing areas (urbanization in pre-industrial societies); (c) population growth, rural-urban migration and economic development as related variables in urbanization in developing societies; (d) urban division of labour and social mobility; functional interdependency; (e) analysis of urban ecology, theoretical and case study approach; (f) urban social interaction, communication and organization: racial and ethnic integration in the city, societal inter-relations, urban policies and trade unionism in Africa; (g) problems of urban services: housing and traffic, the family in an African city, welfare services and their functions, education in the city, etc; (h) urban role in rural development in Africa: cross-cultural approach; (i) some aspects of urban and town planning interdisciplinary approach, (j) language.
|CSO 533||Population Studies And Demography In Developing Countries||View Description|
Population Studies And Demography In Developing Countries Description
The course develops a demographic perspective on human behaviour that includes theoretical concepts and methodological strategies suitable for a wide variety of macro sociological applications. It first considers biological and sociological models of population and then examines some case studies illustrating the basic concepts and models. The course provides students with the knowledge of where to find relevant population data, as well as training in evaluating the validity of the data, and manipulating them for projections. Apart from the technical training in demographic components of social life – fertility, mortality, nuptiality and migration – in East Africa and the developing world in general. The course covers existing demographic theories are also examined in their relationship to the socio-economic conditions of these countries, as this relationship forms the basis of many population policies.
|CSO 534||Gender And Society||View Description|
Gender And Society Description
Gender identity, comparative and historical analysis of issues in male/female identity, practice, and association in selected countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the United States of America. Includes issues in the commercialization of gender, and the ‘indigenization’ of new lifestyles. The specific countries covered may change from time to time. A critical review of major theories of parenthood, gender roles, and gender equity, incorporating an overview of central issues in gender relations and gender studies Female (and male) – dominated terrains and predominant forms of female (male) expression: their relative impacts upon prevailing modes of discourse, knowledge, culture and life-course experiences; and likely future scenarios in terms of dominant worldviews and patterns of resource allocation, particularly in Africa. A critical survey of a selection of texts and events in terms of selected themes and issues, including: symbolic (and media) representations, gender socialization, embodiment, agency, gender-specific styles and structures, human sexuality, love and marriage, forms of parent-child relationship, and inter-terrain negotiations and exchange. Mainstreaming gender in the legal and policy domains. Quantification and evidentiary issues in gender equity.
|CSO 535||Sociology Of Adolescence||View Description|
Sociology Of Adolescence Description
Advanced comparative treatment of adolescence in contemporary African society and other selected countries, with close reference to major conceptual schemes and empirical texts. Explication of adolescent behaviour in terms of social class, ethnic/cultural, racial, educational, religious, and national backgrounds. Detailed analysis of selected problems associated with adolescence, such as: intergenerational conflict, identity concerns (gender and sexuality, ethnic, racial, nationality, religious, class, cultural, looks, language), academic anxieties, social pressures of urban or rural life, bereavement and other family-located stresses, single-parenthood, juvenile delinquency and deviance, drug use and abuse, employment and unemployment, exposure to other (or counter-) cultures through the media and travel abroad, the HIV/AIDS scare. Impact of the main socializing institutions and entities, including: the family, disciplinary society, peer groups, politics, culture-heroes, religious prescriptions, employment anxieties, recreation and leisure. Specification of the lessons to be drawn from the cases and conceptual texts studied concerning improvements in counselling, guidance and other intervention strategies appropriate to specified circumstances.
|CSO 539||Advanced Medical Sociology||View Description|
Advanced Medical Sociology Description
Culture, society and health, including the social construction of illness and the germ theory of disease; the concepts of social and biomedical etiology of disease and illness. Assumptions of biomedical model and taxonomy of illnesses and diseases. Talcott Parson’s sick role theory and its criticisms. The social evolution of biomedicine and its critical perspectives. Inequality and social classes. The Marxist view of social structures and medicine. The social theory of the body; deviance and social control; society and the changing approaches to and models of health. Human ecology and factors associated with the distribution of disease and access to health care. The social organization of health services – origin and issues; health institutions and personnel in the delivery of health care. Medical pluralism and health seeking behaviour. Ethical issues in biomedical practice. Measurement of health and quality of life; and the influence globalisation on the quality and quantity of health services.
|CSO 540||Formal Organizations||View Description|
Formal Organizations Description
Focus on the management of formal organizations, from sociological perspectives. Definition of a formal organization as an entity established for the pursuit of relatively specific objectives on a continuous basis; which has rules of operation, a normative order, a communication and incentive system, and an environment within which it operates. Analysis of a selection of applicable theories, such as: scientific management theory, human relations theory, bureaucratic theory, organization theory, group dynamics theory, theory of the firm, public administration theory, social exchange theory, and systems theory. Study of the types of organizations in existence around the world today in terms of their societal functions, beneficiaries, and administrative/managerial systems. Organizational structure and its effects on the running of organizations.
|CSO 541||Social Psychology||View Description|
Social Psychology Description
The course starts with a background to contemporary social psychology. The individual in a social context is analyzed. Lectures and discussions lay stress on attitude measurement, stimulation of social behaviour and cross-cultural research. The course tackles the issue of group psychology with analysis of group structure, attraction, coalition, communication and power, leadership and collective behaviour. A section on applied social psychology looks at ethnic relations, adolescent behaviour, political behaviour, international relations, and mental health.
|CSO 543||Rural Societies||View Description|
Rural Societies Description
Rural societies defined and distinguished from urban ones; and the emergence of rural sociology examined. Theoretical conceptions of rural societies and their relevance to Third World countries explored. Methods of analyzing rural social systems are explained; and the modalities of applying sociological principles (theory and methods) to rural development initiatives specified. Institutions and agencies concerned with rural development. Detailed discussions of rural peoples, rural social processes, rural social systems and change processes are undertaken. In addition, students analyze case studies of various types of rural communities—pastoralists, peasant, traditional, nomad and fishermen – and of the institutions and agencies operating in those communities, with a view to understanding, inter alia, the foundations of rural decision-making, social action and social change.
|CSO 544||Community Organization And Action||View Description|
Community Organization And Action Description
Explores the origins and growth of community development efforts such as alienation, and work-place social relations. The impact of automation on employment, labour force structure, and incomes. Trends in and social impacts of automated services such as: computer-aid learning (CAL), banking (ATMs), telephone answering services, electronic mailing lists (E-mail and fax), Web browsing and search engines, electronic trading, online services (libraries, data access, professional and advisory services, dating services, discussion groups), and downloadable Web freeware and shareware. Sociological dimensions, with particular reference to Africa, of random access technologies such as: radio, TV, mobile telephones, wireless data networks, the internet. A summary view of the present and likely impact of automation on contemporary African society.
|CSO 545||Social Evaluation Of Programmes||View Description|
Social Evaluation Of Programmes Description
Social evaluation, including impact assessment or appraisal, are prerequisites for rural development. The course traces the origins and growth of evaluation in welfare and rural development programmes in such fields as agriculture. The conceptions of evaluation science, its objectives, relevance and conventional as well as participatory frameworks are presented. The practice of evaluation in terms of conceptualization of what needs to be appraised, research design and methods used is explained. Also dealt with are issues influencing the appraisal, such as the roles
|CSO 548||Rural Industrialization||View Description|
Rural Industrialization Description
The course is designed to expose graduate students to the general rural social processes and problems of unemployment, rural idiocy and attempts by government and other stakeholders to reverse the trend. Rural individualization as a development strategy originates from the colonial period as was/is aimed at controlling the flow of people to urban areas. The strategy is to make rural areas attractive by providing quality conditions (goods and services) that will reverse the trend of population movements. Kenya’s industrial policy is clearly discussed alongside with several other strategies for rural industrialization.
|CSO 569||Occupational Safety And Health||View Description|
Occupational Safety And Health Description
Issues of safety and health in occupational settings. Major categories of occupational risk. Quality of Working Life (QWL) theory. Noise and pollution in heavy industry. Industrial accidents: sources and patterns injuries and fatalities at the workplace (Bohapal as the worst industrial accident in history), and psychological parameters. Gap between recorded and unrecorded accidents; workers’ response. Modalities for accident prevention (such as safe plant layout, machine design and maintenance procedures). Cost of time lost due to injury and disability. Typology of hazardous work and psychological dimensions. Environmental degradation due to industrial/agricultural activities: pesticide contamination, air/water pollution, acid rain, toxic chemicals and products, accidents. Delayed reaction occupational diseases due to pollutants, carcinogens, chemical contamination, exposure to radiation, heat, long hours. Sources, consequences and costs associated with job stress. The legal and regulatory framework for occupational safety and health in comparative perspective: labour/safety standards and labour inspection modalities, union participation in inspections (principle of workers’ “need -to- know”), first-aid and provisions for evacuation and hospitalization, insurance and compensation for workplace injuries and disabilities, unemployment benefits, post-trauma care. Occupational safety and health in: in the informal sector, agriculture, factory, office, household setting, Risks and implications of industrial accidents to neighbouring residential areas. Trends in occupational therapy. Issues of, and strategies for, accident mitigation, response and recovery/rehabilitation.
|CSO 571||Trade Unionism In Developed Countries||View Description|
Trade Unionism In Developed Countries Description
Comparative study of selected trade unions located in developed countries, particularly: USA, France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan and Italy. Particular trade unions in these countries are selected for study. Focus of study: relations with employers and other stakeholders, including the government of the day, own members, political parties, consumer organizations, organized crime; priority issues; funding sources; bargaining styles; organizing principles during strikes or lock-outs. Inquiry into worker’s welfare during strikes, and in relation to industrial accidents; arrangements to ensure internal democracy and leadership rotation. Union policy on, and action related to, workers’ health and accident insurance, retirement benefits, unemployment and unemployment benefits, retrenchment and dismissals, arbitration, investment in developing countries, foreign workers, the taxation of fringe benefits, retrenchment, labour-saving technologies, and other major issues which may arise.
|CSO 572||Collective Bargaining In Developed Countries||View Description|
Collective Bargaining In Developed Countries Description
Intensive study of the collective bargaining process in selected developed countries. Focus on case studies of actual bargaining environments: the issues and parties involved; the duration of the bargaining process, relations with the media, the public, employers, investors, and the politicians; when, and how the arbitrators stepped in, if at all; the conclusion of the bargaining process, and the mode of implementing and honouring the agreements collectively reached.
|CSO 573||Collective Bargaining In Africa||View Description|
Collective Bargaining In Africa Description
Analysis of the ideal-typical and actual functioning of the tripartite interactions involving Labour, Management/Employers and Government in selected African countries. How these continuing interactions define and modify the roles played by each, the economy, the social structure, as well as the terms of employment. Use of appropriate social science concepts for in-depth study of the negotiating process, labour contract administration, and such issues as adequate remuneration, job security, management authority, grievance handling, and workers’ participation. Government policies, laws and regulations affecting collective bargaining and personnel practices. The impact of globalization, automation, and capital markets on collective bargaining in Africa. Advanced techniques of bargaining, fact-finding, mediation and arbitration. Case studies of industrial disputes in selected African countries.
|CSO 575||Sociology Of Mass Communication||View Description|
Sociology Of Mass Communication Description
Mass communications theory. Sociological analysis of multi-faceted social processes mediated by and reproduced in mass-produced communications. The process by which the content of mass communications is valorized: the structures, functions, operations, content, and historical contexts of such communications media as pamphlets, posters, billboards, newspapers, magazines, books, postal services, telephone services, telegraph, radio and TV, film, fax, audio and video cassettes, photocopiers, cameras, scanners, Compact Discs (CDs), the Internet and the World Wide Web. The dynamics and implications of global news media, multimedia systems, and satellite communications. Particular emphasis on their relationships with and impact on their socio-cultural contexts (including audience structure—gender, age, income, racial, religious, nationality), and patterns of ownership and control. Use and effectiveness of mass media in emergency situations: war, civil strife, natural or technological disaster: A discussion of the issue of intellectual property. An assessment of the dialectical relationship between mass communications and the globalizing economy.
|CSO 587||Emergency Toolkit Laboratory||View Description|
Emergency Toolkit Laboratory Description
A critical seminar-type discussion of theories and principles behind identified types of emergency toolkits, and related processes, designed for specified types of emergencies, and currently in use or under development in different parts of the world. Practical familiarization with selected types of toolkits through class involvement in the application, handling, examining, use, testing, evaluation and/or modification of the toolkits and related processes under laboratory or real-life conditions. Study visits to leading emergency aid organizations, actual locations of previous emergencies, factories with emergency-related production lines, persons recovering from trauma, and potential disaster spots.
|CSO 589||Advanced Training Techniques||View Description|
Advanced Training Techniques Description
An advanced training of Trainers course. Application of the KAP model to emergency and disaster situations; sensitization techniques: gender, human rights, religious and cultural sensitivities. TOT on skills related to: prevention, preparedness (early-warning), mitigation, relief/rescue, and recovery. Trainers to be trained on how to train local and grassroots organizations to interpret and implement guidelines for disaster prevention, preparedness (early warning), relief and rehabilitation. Course to include the use of appropriate toolkits and techniques during: earthquakes, explosions (gas, bomb, chemical), epidemics, chemical spills, floods, famine, air crash and road accidents.
|CSO 590||Emergency And Contingency Planning Techniques||View Description|
Emergency And Contingency Planning Techniques Description
Nature, function, principles, premises and process of planning; types of plans. Critical review of recent and current theory and practice of emergency and contingency (situational) planning. Detailed study of all aspects of planning for emergency and contingency situations in particular, and social dimensions of development in general; with stress on techniques that have successfully been applied elsewhere, and innovative approaches relevant to specific empirical situations. Specific attention to the acquisition of skills for preparing and implementing emergency-specific (and-focused) as well as synchronized-action plans covering all phases of emergencies at both the national and local/community levels. Plan types pertinent here include: prevention plans, preparedness plans, mitigation plans, evacuation plans for specific types and magnitude of emergencies/disasters, and tailored to specific social environments, relocation plans for displaced populations which incorporate self-reliance measures, epidemiologically-sound short-term and medium-term responses to sudden outbreaks of disease and other types of epidemics, and rehabilitation plans.
|CSO 591||Contingency And Disaster Recovery Strategies For Organizations||View Description|
Contingency And Disaster Recovery Strategies For Organizations Description
Determining organizations’ level of vulnerability to disasters of various kinds, with particular reference to, inter alia: mission-critical applications over distributed networks; time-sensitive (Just-in-Time) deliveries across unsecured terrain or media, or through contracted independent agents; and tenancy/residency in premises or areas exposed to natural or technological hazards. Identifying weak links, or disaster-prone segments, in the organization chain of comman, and delineating their contingency ad recovery requirements. Techniques of constructing contingency and disaster recovery strategies within and for different types of organizations; governmental civic, and for-profit organizations. Determining the likelihood of identified types of disaster. Making senior management disaster-sensitive and committed to a disaster preparedness and recovery outlook. Costing the effects of disasters: business impact analysis. Testing and updating disaster recovery plans, including the synchronicity of the respective roles played by the recovery team in specified contexts. Issues in the effective execution of contingency and recovery strategies.
|CSO 592||Special Topics In Disaster Management||View Description|
Special Topics In Disaster Management Description
Flexible course content, permits timely accommodation or treatment of unique training needs or specialty-gaps of individual students. Content therefore varies from semester to semester or year to year. 1 to 2 units (a student may take the course twice, in two different semesters, provided that the content is clearly different the second time, and provided that it does not jeopardize other programmes or graduation requirements).
|CSO 593||Post-traumatic Stress Disorders||View Description|
Post-traumatic Stress Disorders Description
The post-traumatic stress disorders consist of: re-experiencing the trauma through dreams and walling thoughts, persistent avoidance of reminders of the trauma, and persistent hyper arousal, a state of increased sensitivity or awareness. Commonly associated symptoms include depression, anxiety, and cognitive 9thinking) difficulties, e.g. poor concentration. The course will mainly focus:
|CSO 594||Counselling||View Description|
Graduate level training in counselling, focusing on such emergencies as: floods, motor or fire accidents, bomb explosions, food poisoning, heat waves, and earthquakes. Basis of counselling: disasters do leave a trail of losses—for example, lives, body-parts, property, family ties, friendship networks, and self-esteem – for victims, their immediate and extended family members, friends, and workmates. Disasters have both medical and non-medical, part of the rehabilitation therapy of individuals undergoing grief, anxiety, depression, guilt, anger, illness, low self-esteem, loneliness, and behavioural/psychological adjustment to physical injury. The course has two distinct parts. Part I: Analysis of theoretical issues in counselling. Part II: Detailed familiarization with empirical, practical, programmatic, and laboratory aspects of counselling.
|CSO 595||Natural And Technological Hazards||View Description|
Natural And Technological Hazards Description
Detailed taxonomy and study of all major natural and technological (‘Man-Made’) hazards—substances as well potential or actual occurrences. Matrix of disaster phases and range of stakeholders, specifying their role and responsibilities of during each phase. The human hand in major ‘natural’ disasters and environmental stress. Analysis of the annual global production and distribution and use of the most hazardous substances: by quantity; monetary value; companies involved; modes of transporting and storing the ingredients, intermediates and finished; and type of risk at every stage. Specification of high risk technologies, toxic chemical substances (such as pesticides) and their intermediates, as well as processes, systems and modalities that pose potential or actual danger to identified African countries or regions. A discussion of the citizen’s need and right to know of the distributors, transporters, and retailers; and by the acts of omission or commission by government regulatory authorities. Inquiry into how the need and right have been articulated in different countries. A chronology of major natural and technological disasters and emergencies, and the lessons to be drawn from them in terms of prevention, prediction (early warning), response/relief, and medium to long-term recovery/rehabilitation.
|CSO 596||Environment And Development||View Description|
Environment And Development Description
Focus on the interrelations and interdependence between humankind and the environment. Covers such key concepts as: environment, environmentalism, development in general, social development, sustainable development. Theoretical perspective relating to Environment and Development: environmentalism, ecologism, the human ecology perspective, social ecology, deep ecology, anthropocentrism versus ecocentrism, the Gaia Hypothesis. Current development debate and the environment: socio-economic development trends and the environment, environmental issues in developed, developing, and underdeveloped world. People’s environmental perception and development: what environmental perception is; how it relates to indigenous knowledge, and affects resource utilization and current development trends. The population/environment equation: population size and the environment, population/resource ratios and evaluation of critical minima, human adaptations, crossing natural thresholds, Malthusiasm from an environmental perspective. The environment and farming systems in selected countries, including an assess. Environmental stress and disasters: nature of environmental disasters, and their social and economic impact. Reaction to disaster situations, including: capacity and capability, preparedness, vulnerability, an external dependence. Environment and health: pollution of various kinds, working environment, sanitation. Environment and education: environmental education, sensitization, public awareness, community based strategies on environmental care. Law and environment: environmental legislation; enforcement of environmental law, including patterns of legal action against local and external offenders; the legal protection of indigenous bio-resources or biodiversity.
|CSO 597||Principles Of Emergency Management||View Description|
Principles Of Emergency Management Description
Emergency management as a rational, coordinated/synchronized, multifactorial human activity aimed at; (a) the pre-emptive identification and prevention or avoidance of high-risk occurrences; (b) emergency preparedness and mitigation (including reducing present and future magnitudes of disasters (c) actual relief and rehabilitation. Four fundamental functions of emergency management: intelligence, control, relief, and recovery. Specification of the socio-economic, technical, administrative, political, and legal factors that impinge upon the management of disasters and emergencies. Flow charts of emergency management. Intelligence or information management (emergency assessment) techniques management. Control analysis. Strategy selection criteria. Strategy implementation and evaluation modes. Assessing public response to natural and technological hazards. Organizational design and development principles of emergency management.
|CSO 598||Comparative Emergency Management||View Description|
Comparative Emergency Management Description
Detailed study of the experiences of a selection of countries which have dealt with major emergency challenges, for example: Algeria, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Great Britain, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Liberia, Mexico, Nigeria, the Philippines, Somalia, South Africa, former Soviet Union, Sudan, Rwanda, and USA. Identification, comparative analysis and synthesis of the fundamental management structures and practices that have in the process evolved; and an assessment of their potential for adoption in other situations or countries. Focus on such issues as the proper role of central and local governments or civil society in disaster management; the balance between prevention and control, on the one hand, and post-disaster response/relief and disaster rehabilitation, on the other; the apportionment of response and recovery/rehabilitation costs among national and international stakeholders; optimization strategies for stakeholder coordination; research needs for improved management practice in future in the areas of: prevention, control, relief and rehabilitation; and, public awareness and education strategies.
|CSO 600||Collective Behaviour And Social Movements||View Description|
Collective Behaviour And Social Movements Description
Detailed study of the anatomies/classifications, sources, life-cycles, and consequences of collective behaviour and social movements in selected countries around the world. Conceptualizing terrorism: meaning, objectives and (perceived) goals, impact on socio-political change over time; terrorist versus guerilla tactics versus liberation-movement tactics. Conceptualizing dissent, direct action, and praxis: “One man’s terrorist…”, revolution, and nationalism. Collective behaviour as cultural movement: counter-culture, avant-garde, secessionism, fundamentalism. Classical and contemporary theories and research pertaining to: collective behaviour or crowd formation, shape/form, relocation, and dispersal; or the production, maintenance, and transformation of different behaviour-types within crowds or collectivities. Thus, for example: Turner and Killian’s “Value-Orientation theory”, Tilly’s Mobilization Theory”, Roberta Garner’s discourse on social movements and people, Marxist Theory of class struggle, Michel’s theory of political parties and democracy, Hirschman’s “Exit-and-Voice” theory, Hyden’s “uncaptured peasantry”, and the eclectic theory of identity. Score-card on the role of contemporary civil society organizations (including NGOs) in collective behaviour evolution and change. Collective responses to disasters and emergencies: a new focus? Which way forward? Community action during emergencies: from collective reaction to coordinated pro-action and response?
|CSO 603||Public Opinion Survey And Societal Marketing Research I||View Description|
Public Opinion Survey And Societal Marketing Research I Description
Theory and philosophy of public opinion determination and societal marketing research. Analysis and application of contemporary methods in public opinion statistics are covered: descriptive and inferential statistics, population distribution, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, probability, sampling, correlation, and simple linear regression. Finally, some attention is paid to report-writing associated with computer-based data processing and statistical outputs.
|CSO 605||Consumer Behaviour||View Description|
Consumer Behaviour Description
The course aims at exploring issues in consumer Behaviour from a Sociological perspective with view to understanding the basic factors that influence consumer behaviour: sociological, cultural, psychological, demographic and economic. Other issues include peer groups, mass media (advertising) social class etc. A review of the criticisms of the mass media as instruments of cultural imperialism is assessed with view to understanding consumer behaviour.
|CSO 611||Health Care Systems In Developing Countries||View Description|
Health Care Systems In Developing Countries Description
Health care systems vary greatly in their performance --in how efficiently they improve health conditions, extend access and contain expenditure growth. And yet, there remains a surprising gap on the operations and performance of systems and on how policies have affected performance (Alliance for Health Policy and Policy Systems Research, 2000). How can scholars/researchers especially in the developing countries fill such information gaps?
In this course, we will basically focus on Health Care Systems that have been adopted to deliver health care services in the developing countries. The course will attempt to review the various ways in which health care services are delivered taking Kenya as a case study.
|CSO 612||Health Planning And Administration||View Description|
Health Planning And Administration Description
Study of the working of both formal and informal health care systems; and of the role of culture, in its broadest sense, in producing particular health systems and sub-cultures which influence experiences of health and health-seeking behaviour. An examination of the theories of formal organization and planning, with particular reference to hospitals. The growth of medical authority and the structure of power in medical settings are examined. The place of rationalism and bureaucracy in the organization of health services is explored in detail; and so is Weber’s contribution to the understanding of modern health care systems. Country-specific health care planning and administration systems are comparatively analysed.
|CSO 613||Health And Social Change||View Description|
Health And Social Change Description
The overall objective of the course is to understand the linkages between the major processes of social change such as industrialization, urbanization and modernization and the health status of human populations. Students taking the course are expected to understand the important consequences of social change such as mental health, malnutrition and other illnesses and diseases of modernization.
|CSO 614||Sociology Of Health And Illness||View Description|
Sociology Of Health And Illness Description
The course examines the cross-cultural and historical evolution of the social concepts of disease and illness. These include the subjective culture-specific notions and experiences of illness and the objective notions and experiences of disease. The course also examines the way in which Western allopathic medicine and traditional belief systems have been juxtaposed in making sense of health and illness in everyday life. Different approaches and assumptions in the understanding of health and illness such as orthodox views, social policy views, medical nemesis, feminist and radical perspectives are also examined. The roles of culture, knowledge, and technology in appreciating different forms of health and illness, including the emergence of new diseases are examined in detail building on the works of such authors as Ivan Illich and Michel Foucault. The course also examines the influence of social factors on illness and health-seeking behaviour; doctor-patient relationships; communication in medical practice; class inequality, ethnicity, culture and disease pattern; modes and forms of providing health care; deviance, labelling and social stigma. Finally the course examines the influence of postmodernism on the sociology of health and medicine.
|CSO 615||Sexuality, Gender And Health||View Description|
Sexuality, Gender And Health Description
Study of the broad area of sexuality and its effects on gender and health. Of crucial importance in the course are the concepts of sexual and reproductive rights and the question of how such rights relate to health, gender and equality, and how to promote a human rights approach to health. Historical approach to sexology and a detailed treatment of shifting sexual identities over time. The psycho-analysis and anthropology of sexuality in a cross-cultural perspective. Sex research as a cultural practice. Theoretical and methodological approaches to sexuality and health. Key topics include: sex, gender and human rights; HIV/AIDS; adolescent sexuality; sexual diversity, law and citizenship; sexual coercion; sexuality and language; sexual and reproductive rights; sexual discourses in different religious communities; sexual politics and sexual responsibilities; sex, tourism and health; sexuality, ageing and health. Finally, a look at the causes and risk factors for a range of reproductive health conditions and health service requirements including in relation to family planning, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, infertility, maternal health, cervical cancer, adolescent health and violence against women.
|CSO 620||Advanced Computer Graphics||View Description|
Advanced Computer Graphics Description
Advanced exposure to hardware, software, mathematical tools and techniques, as well as other procedures, for representing, manipulating, and displaying topological as well as two-and three dimensional objects. A more intensive application of the tools, techniques and procedures learned in CSO 417 to more complex social problems or scenarios, especially those pertinent to the contents of CSO 514, CSO 516, CSO 517, and CSO 518.
|CSO 621||Advanced Database Management For Social Science||View Description|
Advanced Database Management For Social Science Description
Graduate-level database and information management principles, techniques and procedures, with a social science orientation. Covers data entry, data verification, and data access problems and solutions associated with digital computing; data security, firewalls, data encryption; client-server and network environments. Archiving principles. Automated entry techniques and software; the auto-relational database model. Natural language query software and techniques. Advanced data management: creating and using what-if data tables; creating cross-tabulated data and frequency distributions; importing data from other programmes; the data parse procedure. Prerequisite, CSO 418.
|CSO 622||Advanced Computer Programming I||View Description|
Advanced Computer Programming I Description
Advanced, PC-based, computer lecture-laboratory focusing on programming principles and applications relevant to social science themes and problems; and providing enhanced hands-on familiarity, in a Windows environment, with selected programming languages. Focus on themes and problems which lend themselves to mathematical, statistical, or graphical rendering/interpretation, such as: Monte Carlo simulation; game playing and decision trees; and flow charts. Considerable attention also paid to techniques of customizing data search procedures using automated search engines and Web browsing software; and to other programming solutions pertinent to the level of statistics covered in CSO 516 (Advanced Statistics I), CSO 518 (Mathematical Sociology I), and SCO 520 (Sociometrics I). Prerequisite, an undergraduate programming course (CSO 416) or equivalent.
|CSO 623||Advanced Computer Programming Ii||View Description|
Advanced Computer Programming Ii Description
Continuation of CSO 622. Introduces skills for designing, coding, test-running and commissioning increasingly elaborate programmes; stresses programming solutions pertinent to the level of computation covered in CSO 517 (Advanced Statistics II), CSO 519 (Mathematical Sociology II), and CSO 521 (Sociometrics II). Introduces FORTRAN-based modeling and simulations of continuous, discrete or hybrid, real-life social systems and sub-systems, or “ideal-typical” scenarios. 1 unit. Prerequisite, CSO 622.
|CSO 698||M.a. Project Paper||View Description|
M.a. Project Paper Description
Research for the M.A. project paper will focus on a specified sociological problem. Its format will encompass: (1) A problem statement (incorporating the study justification); (2) a review of the literature and theories, and specification of a theoretical framework to guide the study; (3) a specification of research methods; (4) presentation of research results; (5) conclusions and implications for further research and policy. Research for the paper will be based on secondary data, or primary data where available. The project paper will be completed and submitted for examination in the final semester of the M.A. programme.
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